Whooping Chough Essay Research Paper Whooping cough


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Whooping Chough Essay, Research Paper

Whooping cough which is also known as Pertussis is caused by infection by the

Bordetella Pertussis bacteria. It is a highly contagious bacterial disease that

affects the respiratory system and produces spasms of coughing that usually end

in a high-pitched whooping sound. In this report I will describe how Pertussis

is spread, contracted, what treatments are available for it and the prognosis

for the patient. I will also tell you about the many symptoms of the disease.

Etiology: Pertussis is caused by Bordetella Pertussis the bacteria invades the

nose and throat and then the trachea followed by the bronchial tubes of the

lungs. People usually contract the bacteria through the air when an infected

person coughs or sneezes. Then people inhale or come in contact with the

infected saliva. People who have been immunized in the past may still develop

infection but it is usually atypical or very mild that is another cause of

whooping cough. The incubation period is usually about 7 days. Morphology &

Diagnosis: Pertussis is a round shaped gram positive bacteria. Some of the

symptoms of Pertussis include runny nose, coughing that may be dry or may

produce sputum. Along with a fever usually 102F or lower. Severe coughing

attacks that ends in a high-pitched crowing sound when inhaling or it will end

in a high-pitched "whoop". The coughing spells may end in a momentary

loss of consciousness and or vomiting. It also results in difficulty at

breathing. It also can cause some people to have diarrhea. When some small

infants have long spells of coughing they usually begin to cry which causes them

to choke on there own tears. Pertussis can be treated by DtaP which is a vaccine

that protects children against the disease. During epidemics, health care

providers or others at risk may be advised to receive a booster dose of the

vaccine. The immunization is not 100 percent effective and has slowly becomes

less effective over the past few years. Some tests that can be performed to tell

if a person has contracted are to take a culture of the secretions from the nose

and mouth and throat. A complete blood count or CBC which measures the number of

red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood. If there is an with an

elevated number of white blood cell count characterized by large numbers of

lymphocytes. There are also serologic tests for Pertussis. Treatment: The

Treatments include Erythromycin which is an antibiotic that is administered and

may shorten the duration of the symptoms. Infants under 18 months of age require

constant supervision because breathing may temporarily stop during spells of

sever coughing. Infants with severe cases should be hospitalized. An oxygen tent

with high humidity may be used. Intravenous fluid may be given if coughing

spells are severe enough to prevent enough fluid intake by mouth. Sedatives may

also be prescribed for young children. Cough suppressants are usually not

helpful and should not be used. Prognosis: The prognosis for a person who leaves

Pertussis untreated in infants has a poor outcome. The disease has a one percent

to 2 percent death rate. Death may occur from lack of oxygen to the brain and

bronchopneumonia. Some other complications that may occur are slowed or stopped

breathing, nose bleeds, pneumonia, convulsions which are caused by a lack of

oxygen and can cause permanent brain damage. Some of the more serious effects

are anoxic encephalopathy, cerebral hemorrhage, seizures and developmental

retardation. Miscellaneous: In Ethiopia rural doctors give a vaccination for

Pertussis to people in street markets in an effort to increase the immunity rate

of their country. Pertussis has becomes an epidemic about every 2-4 years. It

usually affects non-immunized children with a history of contact to the bacteria

the most. Personal Reflection: Matts reflection: When I think of Whooping cough

I don’t think of it as a major epidemic. The reason why I believe this is

because there is not much information on the subject and I had a very difficult

time finding pictures of the bacteria and its effects. I suppose that if 10 out

of every 100,000 people are infected with it then it must not be a very large

problem. The disease doesn’t to seem to have very sever side effects if it is

left untreated. I am almost certain that in a few more years Whooping cough will

disappear. Roberts reflection: My opinion is a little different than Matts but

in some ways I feel the same. First off I do agree that in this day and age it

is not a sever problem and can only infect a very small amount of the

population. But on the other hand I think that perhaps in third world countries

it may be a rampid problem do to the fact that most people aren’t immunized

against it. Even then the only people who are usually effected by the disease

are children under 2 years old. They are the main targets of this disease

because they don’t have an adequate immune systems to fight of the bacteria. Now

maybe back in the 1900’s Whooping cough would of been an epidemic because of

their very limited amount of technology and they wouldn’t of known how to treat

the disease or how to contain it. With all this in mind I think that Whooping

cough is not a serious problem and like Matt said in a few years I think the

disease will die off and Whooping cough will be a thing of the past. Glossary:

Etiology: The cause of a disease Morphology: Physical charstics of a pathogen.

Diagnosis: What symptoms the pathogen shows and what tests can be performed to

detect the disease. Prognosis: What the doctor predicts the out come will be.

Erythromycin: A antibiotic used to shorten the duration of the symptoms of

Whooping cough. CBC: A measurement of the number of red and white blood cells in

the plasma. DtaP: A vaccine that protects children against the Whooping


The Morit students Encyclopedia Volume 19 Holt science Biology book

visualizing life Internet http:// www.newss.ksu.edu/web/newsreleasees/listwhoopingchough.html

http:// www.drugcase.co2c.data.mediainfo.wcough.html http:// www.mctrokc.gov/helth/precont/pertuss.html

http:// www.slu.edu/libraries/hsc/ovid_db_mlax.shtml http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/3504/gallery.htm


file name=001561.htm


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